Credits and copyright


Preliminary note

Most of the illustrations in these notes were created by me; this is the case with all plots, reaction schemes, molecular structures, and cartoons, except where stated otherwise. These images—like the text, which was entirely written by me—are subject to the terms of the copyright notice below.

Photographs were obtained from various sources. Most of the histological images were obtained from pathorama.ch and are reproduced here with the kind permission of that website’s owner, Katharina Glatz. All histological micrographs for which another source is not specified below were obtained from this one.

For all other photographs, the sources are listed below, as far as I have been able to ascertain them. These images have been used either with explicit permission of the originating websites’ owners, or under the following rationales:

  • Images from wikipedia: These are usually released under the Creative Commons 3.0 license, which permits their incorporation, in unchanged form, into a collection, without affecting the copyright of the resulting collection as a whole. I believe that these lecture notes and slides constitute a collection conforming to this clause.
  • Images from scientific journals: only photographs were used that constitute direct experimental observations, such as as electron or light micrographs of proteins or cells. In contrast for example to conceptual drawings or cartoons, I consider these photographs to be research data and thus not subject to copyright; claims to the opposite by the publishers (usually linked with the demand for the payment of fees) notwithstanding. This position is supported by legal scholars [224,225] and US court decisions [226].
  • Images from individual sources, for which no copyright holder could be identified, or for which requests for permission to reuse went unanswered: the use of these images is deemed appropriate (1) because of general fair use considerations [225], and/or (2) because the images in question constitute faithful reproductions of physical or biological phenomena, without artistic originality, and therefore are not subject to copyright protection [226].

If you have the rights to an image used here without explicit permission or credit, and you do not agree with its use in these notes, please let me know, and I will remove that image. If you have the rights to an uncredited image and you do agree with its use, I would also appreciate a brief note to this effect, so that I can give you proper credit.


Individual image credits

All images which are neither photographs/micrographs nor listed here are my own work. Any photographs/micrographs not listed here are from pathorama.ch.

Slide Source
1.6.10 Right: with kind permission by Roger Wagner, University of Delaware. Left: From pathorama.ch.
2.3.1 Left: from bayregio.de; right: author’s own work.
8.6.2 Panel 1: from pathorama.ch, panel 2: from wikipedia, panels 3 and 4: Origin and copyright ownership unknown.
9.3.7 Photograph by Tommaso Leonardi, via wikipedia.
9.4.1 Photograph downloaded from morguefile.com. Image was stated to be available without attribution; it seems to have been removed since from the website.
9.4.3 Photograph by Ernst Hempelmann, via wikipedia. β-Hematin structure rendered from coordinates kindly provided by Katherine de Villiers.
10.3.8 From reference [227].
11.2.8 From Histology@Yale with kind permission by Peter Takizawa.
13.2.3 Photograph from the University of Toronto Image Bank. Image is in the public domain.
13.2.4 Left: poster by Song Ren. Image obtained via the International Institute of Social History. Right: photograph by Claudette Bue, via wikipedia.
13.2.5 Portrait from Michigan State University. On the website, Dr. Sanger himself is listed as the source of the photograph.
13.2.7 Cartoons downloaded from childcoloringpages.net and pagestocolor.net. Subsequently converted to vector graphics format. Both websites stated the images to be free and did not identify the creators.
13.3.8 This image is found in multiple locations on the web. According to this reference, the image originated with Jackson Laboratories.
14.4 EM image from the Public Health Image Library of the CDC (id 5630). Image is in the public domain.
15.4.7 From Histology@Yale with permission by Peter Takizawa.
15.5.3 Origin and copyright ownership unknown
17.3.1 Origin and copyright ownership unknown
17.3.3 From the Cleveland Clinic Center for Continuing Education with permission
18.2.7 adapted from a similar figure in [149]
18.7.4 Electron microscopy taken from [189]